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Sun, star around which Earth and the other components of the solar system revolve. It is the dominant body of the system, constituting more than 99 per cent of its entire mass. The Sun is the source of an enormous amount of energy, a portion of which provides Earth with the light and heat necessary to support life.
The Sun is classified as a G2 V star, with G2 standing for the second hottest stars of the yellow G class—of surface temperature about 5,800 kelvins (K)—and the V representing a main sequence, or dwarf, star, the typical star for this temperature class. (G stars are so called because of the prominence of a band of atomic and molecular spectral lines that the German physicist Joseph von Fraunhofer designated G.) The Sun exists in the outer part of the Milky Way Galaxy and was formed from material that had been processed inside a supernova. The Sun is not, as is often said, a small star. Although it falls midway between the biggest and smallest stars of its type, there are so many dwarf stars that the Sun falls in the top 5 percent of stars in the neighbourhood that immediately surrounds it.
The Sun’s core fuses about 600 million tons of hydrogen into helium every second, converting 4 million tons of matter into energy every second as a result. This energy, which can take between 10,000 and 170,000 years to escape the core, is the source of the Sun’s light and heat.
When hydrogen fusion in its core has diminished to the point at which the Sun is no longer in hydrostatic equilibrium, its core will undergo a marked increase in density and temperature while its outer layers expand, eventually transforming the Sun into a red giant. It is calculated that the Sun will become sufficiently large to engulf the current orbits of Mercury and Venus, and render Earth uninhabitable – but not for about five billion years. After this, it will shed its outer layers and become a dense type of cooling star known as a white dwarf, and no longer produce energy by fusion, but still glow and give off heat from its previous fusion.