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Video is a digital format for recording, copying, playing back, transmitting, and displaying moving images. Video was initially created for mechanical television systems, which were rapidly superseded by cathode ray tube (CRT) systems, which were then superseded by various forms of flat panel displays.
The display resolution, aspect ratio, refresh rate, color capability, and other characteristics of video systems differ. There are analog and digital versions that may be transmitted on radio, magnetic tape, optical discs, computer files, and network streaming, among other media.
Video technology was initially created for mechanical television systems, which were rapidly supplanted by cathode ray tube (CRT) television systems, although various additional video display technologies have since been established. Originally, video was only available in real time.
Originally, video was only available in real time. One of the earliest workable video tape recorders was developed by an Ampex research team led by Charles Ginsburg (VTR). The first videotape recorder (VTR) was introduced in 1951, and it recorded live pictures from television cameras by putting the camera’s electrical signal onto magnetic videotape.
In 1956, video recorders cost $50,000 and videotapes cost $300 each one-hour reel. Prices significantly decreased over time, and Sony began selling videocassette recorder (VCR) decks and tapes to the general public in 1971.
The adoption of digital video technology resulted in digital video. Because early digital uncompressed video required impractically large bitrates, it couldn’t compete with analog video at first.
Discrete cosine transform (DCT) coding, a lossy compression technology invented in the early 1970s, made practical digital video conceivable. Starting with H.261, the first viable digital video coding standard, DCT coding was evolved into motion-compensated DCT video compression in the late 1980s.
Digital video later became capable of greater quality and, eventually, lower cost than analog video. Videotape and recording equipment sales decreased after the advent of the DVD in 1997, and then the Blu-ray Disc in 2006.
Advances in computer technology have made it possible for even low-priced personal computers and cellphones to capture, store, edit, and transmit digital video, significantly lowering the cost of video production and allowing programmers and broadcasters to transition to tapeless production.
In most areas of the globe, the introduction of digital broadcasting and the accompanying shift to digital television is relegating analog video to the status of an obsolete technology.
In most areas of the globe, the introduction of digital broadcasting and the accompanying shift to digital television is relegating analog video to the status of an obsolete technology. Modern digital video technology is merging with digital film technology as of 2015, with the increased adoption of high-resolution video cameras with greater dynamic range and color gamuts, as well as high-dynamic-range digital intermediate data formats with improved color depth.
Interlaced or progressive video can be used. Each refresh interval in progressive scan systems refreshes all scan lines in each frame in order. When viewing a natively progressive broadcast or recorded signal, both the stationary and moving sections of the image have the best spatial resolution.
Early mechanical and CRT television displays used interlacing to eliminate flicker without increasing the number of full frames per second. When compared to progressive scanning, interlacing preserves detail while needing less bandwidth.
In interlaced video, each complete frame’s horizontal scan lines are treated as if they were sequentially numbered and captured as two fields: an odd field (upper field) for odd-numbered lines and an even field (lower field) for even-numbered lines.
In terms of apparent overall flicker, analog display technologies duplicate each frame, essentially doubling the frame rate. The frame rate for motion is effectively doubled when the image capture device acquires the fields one at a time rather than dividing up a complete frame after it is captured, resulting in smoother, more lifelike reproduction of rapidly moving parts of the image when viewed on an interlaced CRT display.